Gear Break: Zwift Dials Up ‘Esports’ with the Launch of the Zwift Grand Prix Series, SPORTFUL “Rocket” jersey, Roval Rapide CL II – WorldTour speed for all, custom bike maker Spoon Group successfully closes £740k funding round, PRO introduces a new Vibe Superlight road cockpit and carbon clip-ons designed for gravel and triathlon, JetBlack: Steering on Zwift just got a whole lot better and the Helmetor helmet holder.
Zwift Dials Up ‘Esports’ with the Launch of the Zwift Grand Prix Series
The revolutionary series will feature many of the best cycling esports competitors in a new style of racing that will require more skill, new tactics, and deliver a high-energy viewing experience
Zwift, the global online fitness platform for cyclists, will today host the first race in a new cycling esports invitational series, the Zwift Grand Prix. The innovative new series will feature six new exciting event formats that have never been seen before in cycling, prioritizing strategic thinking, competitive skill, teamwork, and viewing pleasure. The series is part of a wider strategy to drive forward the development of cycling esports as a discipline during 2022/3 – culminating in a brand new event format for the 2023 UCI Cycling Esports World Championships, taking place on the Zwift platform in February.
A total of 24 teams have been selected to take part in the inaugural series, which will see equal fields, the same race formats, and equal prize money for both men and women.
Round One begins Friday 23rd September at 6pm UTC, and will see the racers compete in over five short-format events. The ‘Parcours Picker’ is a team-based point competition, with points accrued over all five races, with double points in the final race. Team captains need to be careful about rider selection, as they will be required to field every rider but must use a different member of their five-rider team in each of the five rounds. Course knowledge will be essential, as each individual performance will contribute to the overall success of the team. The smaller field sizes will not only contribute to more dynamic racing but will provide an opportunity for every individual rider the chance to shine.
Nathan Guerra, Founder of Zwift Community Live, and commentator for the Zwift Grand Prix, says – “Two things really stand out to me in this first round of the Zwift Grand Prix Series. Firstly, this new format of competition provides the opportunity for teams to let their whole roster shine. It will be interesting to see how teams play their cards according to the predicted matchups and courses in store. As spectators, we will be able to see the strengths of every individual, in every team. That’s unique. Cycling is a team sport but it’s usually the all-star rider that gets the recognition from fans because they cross the line first. It’s easy to overlook the efforts of the team that got them in a position to win.”
“Secondly, this series clearly aims to meet the needs of both the rider and the spectator. High risk to reward scenarios, embedded meaningfully in a larger tournament competition, helps deliver on making this an exciting format to watch but also keeps the racing fresh for the riders. As we see in round one, there are opportunities that provide each individual the chance to really show what they can do. It’s experimental, but this test comes out of many years of discovery to find the ingredients that will help cycling and esports to synergize. I’m looking forward to seeing how it all unfolds this season!”
All races will be streamed live on the Zwift YouTube channel
Full Season Schedule:
Round 1 – Parcours Picker
Men: Friday, September 23 @ 6 pm UTC
Women: Friday, September 30 @ 6 pm UTC
Round 2 – Team Elimination Omnium
Men: Friday, October 7 @ 6 pm UTC
Women: Friday, October 14 @ 6 pm UTC
Round 3 – Squad Skirmish
Men: Friday, October 21 @ 6 pm UTC
Women: Friday, October 28 @ 6 pm UTC
Round 4 – Points Elimination Reverse
Men: Friday, November 18 @ 7 pm UTC
Women: Friday, November 25 @ 7 pm UTC
Round 5 – Team Elimination Omnium
Men: Friday, December 2 @ 7 pm UTC
Women: Friday, December 9 @ 7 pm UTC
Round 6 – Individual Relay
Men: Friday, January 13 @ 7 pm UTC
Women: Friday, January 20 @ 7 pm UTC
Men and Women: Late March (TBD)
To learn more about racing on Zwift, head over to zwift.com/racing
SPORTFUL “Rocket” Jersey = $11OUS
“A minimalist cut and an aggressive design characterized by metallic tones that create color play with the sunlight.” – That’s how the Sportful.com website describes this lightweight jersey – my tester weighed just 117 grams – yeah that’s light.
With summers getting warmer here each year, it’s nice to see brands turning out quality kit in the high end with designs as cool as this. Sportful has made a big push this season to step into some really cool colorways, offering brighter colors, stylish designs, and just more interesting choices than a lot of other brands.
There are 4 distinct colorways of the Rocket jersey – this one is called Galaxy Blue Sea Golden OA. The design features hues of blue with gold accents, highlighted by a fading checkerboard pattern at the left sleeve and right rear pocket area.
The jersey actually takes on a slightly different color appearance depending on how the light hits it.
But aside from looking cool – this Rocket actually is cool. So cool in fact, that it became my go-to jersey for hot summer rides this season, as I spent a lot of days riding in 28C – 35C degrees.
The poly/elastane blend fabric is soft, and very well vented. Air flows freely through it and even moreso at the side panels where an even more open weave is used.
The sleeves are form fitting, and reach down to just above my elbows – de rigueur styling this days – which smartly eliminate the need for a gripper at the cuff, and functionally are more aerodynamic. The cuff edges are lazer cut for a really clean finish.
Durability has been great – I’ve worn this upwards of 20 times this season, washing it inside out and in cold water after each ride (hang it to dry). One thing about these lighter weight fabrics is that they just don’t have the durability of heavier weights, but I’ve had no snags, pulls, or tears on this one yet.
And even though we’re at the end of summer, I’m still seeing really warm days here, and I will be in Little Rock AK this weekend for the Big Dam Bridge Ride, where they’re expecting 35C degrees – I’ll best be packin’ my Rocket.
And maybe the best thing is that it’s on sale right now at the Sportful website
Sizes: Small – 3 XL
Roval Rapide CL II – World Tour Speed for All
You’ve already met the new Rapide CLX II wheels. They are world beaters. Just launched in May they already have Tour stage wins and Grand Tour victory on their palmarès. Now that level of performance is coming to more riders – World Tour racing license optional.
The all-new Rapide CL II wheelset brings the same Rapide CLX II speed, that same efficiency, that same incredible handling and stability in any conditions to more riders. Built on the exact same rims as the Rapide CLX II the performance is elevated with tubeless done right technology. The Rapide CL II makes that performance easier to catch at check-out, and you almost impossible to catch on the open road.
Two Rims in One
The Rapide CL II is actually two wheels in one, each optimized for the unique aero challenges of its position—a 51mm-deep front rim with a 35mm external width and a 60mm-deep rear rim with a 30mm external width. The result is a tubeless wheelset that’s faster than most 65mm wheels but is 25% more stable than our CLX50 in heavy wind.
The rear wheel is the last thing the wind sees, so we developed that rim shape to minimize drag at the trailing edge of the bike. At 60mm deep with a 30mm external width, the Rapide CL II rear rim reduces turbulence and yields the greatest aerodynamic benefit. Since the rear wheel doesn’t affect steering the way the front does, this deep section doesn’t adversely impact handling. Together, they represent the fastest package for real-world race conditions.
Stability Equals Speed
Deep-section front rims are affected adversely by crosswinds. This negatively impacts handling, in turn causing a rider to slow down. By utilizing the first modeling algorithm designed around riders’ real-world reaction times we developed a front rim that both reduces drag AND increases stability by 25% in sudden wind gusts compared to our previous 50mm rims.
We know from extensive automotive and aeronautical reaction timing studies that it’s wind gusts between 0.5 and 2.0 seconds that riders struggle with. Essentially a rider can’t react to wind gusts shorter than 0.5 seconds; they are too short. A rider can react to gusts lasting between 0.5 and 2.0 seconds but will react after the wind gust is over. This causes an overcorrection that needs to be corrected again, which is why blustery crosswinds feel so sketchy. So we instructed our algorithm to optimize stability in the 0.5 to 2.0 second window time. Faster than that, and you can’t react quickly enough to overcompensate. Slower than that, and you can easily adjust to the side force of a crosswind.
For days, the algorithm randomly mutated, virtually kicking out low performers and iterating on high performers. The resulting Rapide shape was the best combination of pure drag reduction and stability within the reaction time frame that matters for a rider.
The Rapide CL II is hand built every step of the way, from initial lay-up to the final tensioning on the nippels. Built on DT Swiss 350 hubs with a 36 tooth Star Ratchet and Competition Race straight pull spokes the result is a set of wheels designed as a complete system that weighs just 1590 grams a set, delivering incredible reliability and durability, with World Tour ready performance.
Hooked on Tubeless
The reduced rolling resistance of a tubeless setup is undeniable, as are the benefits of improved handling and incredible puncture protection. The development of the Rapide CL II involved the most rigorous and extensive engineering and testing program that we’ve ever undertaken and resulted in a wheelset that almost doubles current industry impact standards while managing to achieve the lightest weight possible. It took 21 months, but the resulting rims are the strongest we have ever made at the lightest possible weight. As a system, they now pass the rigorous testing standards we have created while delivering more performance as a tubeless system than the world-beating tube-type Rapide and Alpinist.
Why Tubeless is Faster
Lower internal friction equals more speed and grip. When the tire rolls through the contact patch, the tire casing must deform. This causes internal friction, which increases rolling resistance and uses energy. Using a tube means more material deforms—casing and tube—so more friction is created and more energy is lost.
Running tubeless significantly reduces the amount of material that must deform—tire alone—which reduces friction and reduces the energy lost, leaving more energy to propel you forward. Decreased material deformation also leads to a tire that deforms easier in response to road imperfections for better grip and a more comfortable and controlled ride. These are “always-on” benefits, regardless of speed or terrain. If your tire is rolling, you’re faster on tubeless.
“We can say the average the rolling resistance reduction is 8%. In terms of a performance road racing tire at 40 kp/h, it is a 1.7 watt saving per tire, 3.5 watts per bike.” – Oliver Kiesel, Specialized Tire PM
The Rapide CL II utilizes a hooked rim (allowing for real-world riding pressures up to 110psi, if that’s your thing) for secure tire bead retention and an easier set up and mounting experience than ever before. This is tubeless done right.
True To Your Ride
The Entire Roval team is really proud of the new Rapide CL II wheels. These wheels represent years of work with our teams, in the test lab and, and out on the road. Taking World Tour level performance and injecting it into a wheelset available to more riders, with durability and reliability for many seasons of riding on the most demanding roads in the world is what being true to your ride means.
We really hope you enjoy these wheels as much as we do.
- Rim: Rapide CLX Carbon Clincher, 700c, Disc Brake, Tubeless
- Rim Details: Front – 51mm Depth, 35mm External Width, 21mm Internal Width; Rear – 60mm Depth, 30mm External Width, 21mm Internal Width
- Hubs: DT Swiss 350 Straighpull Center Lock, Star Ratchet 36t internals (10 degs), 100x12mm & 142x12mm, Shim. RD. 11SP HG freehub
- Spokes: DT Swiss Competition Race Straightpull, Radial/Two-cross (2:1) 18 count, DS: 258mm, NDS: 270mm; Rear: Two-cross (1:1) 24 count, DS: 256mm NDS: 260mm
- Tire Size: 24mm – 38mm; Max Pressure: 24mm-35mm: Tubeless (110psi) Tubed (130psi), 36mm – 38mm: Tubeless (60psi) Tubed (60psi)
- Weight: Wheelset 1,590g, Front 725g, Rear 865g (including 15g, tubeless rim tape and tubeless valve)
- System Weight Limit: 275lbs / 125kg
USA: $1750 (Wheelset), $1025 (Rear), $725 (Front)
Europe: €1800 (Wheelset), €950 (Rear), €850 (Front)
Australia: $2600 (Wheelset), $1500 (Rear), $1100 (Front)
New Zealand: $2900 (Wheelset), $1650 (Rear), $1250 (Front)
Canada: $2298 (Wheelset), $1299 (Rear), $999 (Front)
China: ¥11980 (Wheelset), ¥6490 (Rear), ¥5490 (Front)
United Kingdom: £1500 (Wheelset), £850 (Rear), £650 (Front)
Brazil: $14080 (Wheelset), $8290 (Rear), $5790 (Front)
South Korea: ₩2.1mm (Wheelset), ₩1.2mm (Rear), ₩900,000 (Front)
Japan: ¥210,000 (Wheelset), ¥123,000 (Rear), ¥87,000 (Front)
Custom Bike Maker Spoon Group Successfully Closes £740k Funding Round
Spoon Group Ltd.—the company created when well-loved custom bike brands Spoon Customs and WyndyMilla first merged in 2019—has closed a funding round totalling £740k. This investment will enable Spoon to realise its ambitious growth plans.
After a successful private round brought in almost £300k in new investment, long-term debt partner and institutional investor FSE Group stepped in with matched funding through its Enterprise M3 initiative, bringing the total raised to £740k and valuing the bespoke bike company at £3.7million.
The new company, led by Spoon Customs Founder Andy Carr, was created when former Ovo Energy retail boss Chris Houghton identified an opportunity to rejuvenate the esteemed WyndyMilla bike company by bringing in the fresh approach of award-winning start-up, Spoon Customs.
Since the merger, the company has landed five-star reviews for their newest bike, the Spoon Vars Disc. The Vars is a completely new made-to-measure carbon road bike which offers all the performance benefits available from any of the big brands, but with the added advantages of perfect fit, fabrication, and finishing, leaving no detail overlooked.
Carefully crafted one at a time, Spoon Customs bikes are designed to meet the exact needs of individual cyclists looking for the best possible riding experience.
The bikes are designed and delivered through detailed dialogue between the Spoon brand and its customers, with numerous touchpoints along the way that ensure a more meaningful, personalised experience of buying and owning a performance bespoke bike.
With exciting products and proven expertise in steel and carbon bike design, the company will use the funding to further develop its portfolio of road and gravel bikes, as well as build on its reputation for creativity and service by growing the team and continuing to improve the overall customer experience. The company also owns and operates Gun Control Custom Paint, a leading technical and creative finishing company.
Moving forward, Spoon’s plans include developing a new performance e-bike in 2023. This will enable the company to take part in recent exponential growth in the e-bike space whilst growing their international customer base by increasing brand awareness and distribution, welcoming more people into the unique experience of designing and owning a custom bike.
Andy Carr, Chief Executive Officer of Spoon Group explains: “Cyclists these days know they can get more from their equipment if it’s designed around their body, for the specific riding they do. Our recent reviews prove we can compete on performance terms with any of the big brands and this new funding will help us shift more people away from mass produced equipment, in favour of a better bike made with perfect fit, fabrication and finishing, designed for individual performance needs.”
Paul Lyristis, Investment Manager, South East for The FSE Group, commented: “We were impressed by Spoon’s track record and the expertise of the senior management team and investors. The fund has supported the business since 2016, and it is encouraging to see the growth of the business with great products that are receiving increasing recognition. We are delighted to be able to invest in Spoon and look forward to working with Andy, Chris and the team to ensure they reach their goals for growth.”
The Enterprise M3 Funding Escalator is a £10million initiative funded by Enterprise M3 LEP. The escalator, which includes an expansion loan scheme, a trade finance loan scheme and an equity growth fund, provides eligible companies with loans and equity funding between £50,000 and £300,000 for activities that will deliver high-growth and employment opportunities across the EM3 area.
For more information about the Enterprise M3 Growth Fund please visit www.thefsegroup.com/fund/enterprise-m3-funding-escalator or contact Paul Lyristis at email@example.com.
PRO Introduces a New Vibe Superlight Road Cockpit and Carbon Clip-Ons Designed for Gravel and Triathlon
Power your performance with the Vibe Superlight – PRO’s lightest ever cockpit
Improve your aerodynamic efficiency with the all-new PRO Compact Carbon Clip-On
Introduced in 2007, the PRO Vibe product range set the benchmark in terms of weight, strength and aesthetics for the discerning road cyclist. Featured prominently on SHIMANO Neutral Service bikes at the biggest cycling events in the world, PRO Vibe has been the cockpit of choice for Grand Tour stage and general classification wins over the years. This is why PRO is excited to introduce its all-new PRO Vibe Superlight Handlebar and Stem—shaving 75 grams off their previously lightest cockpit.
The PRO Vibe Superlight range, introduced in 2019, is the latest generation and represents an evolution in terms of weight saving and performance.
Weighing only 154 grams, for the 38-centimeter-wide model, this is the lightest road handlebar PRO has ever made.
As the centerpiece for the new cockpit, the PRO Vibe Superlight Handlebar’s weight was not reduced at the expense of performance, as the handlebar’s high-grade UD T1100 carbon lay-up includes Innegra™ fibers, for improved impact resistance.
With Innegra™ fibers in the carbon layup, the PRO Vibe Superlight Handlebar is made more resistant to ride-ending absolute failure, because of the carbon placement in these strategic locations.
It is not just weight savings that make the new handlebars remarkable: the oversized rounded tops provide a comfortable and ergonomic hand position too. Climbers who like to ride holding the tops will appreciate this feature.
The PRO Vibe Superlight Handlebar is fully compatible with SHIMANO Di2 internal cable routing, ensuring that riders with the latest drivetrains can also boast the cleanest Vibe Superlight Cockpits. Available in three widths, from 38 to 42 centimeters wide, the new PRO handlebars allow for a precise bike fit; when combined with the PRO Vibe Superlight Stem.
PRO Vibe Superlight Stem
Constructed from 7075 Alloy, and optimized for the PRO Vibe Superlight Handlebar, the PRO Vibe Superlight Stem is both lightweight and stiff and is compatible with other handlebars that have a 31.8 millimeters clamping diameter. The stem combined with the handlebar, completes the cockpit’s seamless integration of internal cable routing, on compatible bikes, while providing different cable routing options that are compatible with older frames.
Available in 70- to 120-millimeter lengths, and featuring a ±6-degree angle, the PRO Vibe Superlight Stem can be installed in either a positive or negative orientation, to allow for a more (or less) aggressive cockpit set-up – making the ride truly yours.
As the name suggests it is superlight, with the shortest version weighing just 92 grams; opting for a high-grade alloy construction, rather than carbon fiber. Further weight savings to the new PRO Vibe Superlight cockpit is provided by the PRO Gap Cap Expander Carbon, weighing in at only 24 grams — 16 grams less than PRO’s previous lightest expander.
PRO Gap Cap Expander Carbon
Available in versions for 1 1/8 and 1 ¼ inch carbon steerers, the most weight conscious of cyclists, with a true eye for detail, will acknowledge that while this saving represents a small difference in grams, it is significant in percentages improvement of 40%.
When combined with the new PRO Gap Cap Expander Carbon and the lightweight Stem Computer Mount the superlight cockpit provides PRO’s lightest ever set-up, with a superbly functional offering.
PRO Vibe Computer Mount
Completing the perfect PRO climber’s cockpit into a high performance and functional unit is the PRO Vibe Computer Mount. Available in two models, one of which is designed to fit the new PRO Vibe Superlight and existing PRO Vibe Carbon stems, it provides an out-front mounting point for Garmin, Wahoo and Bryton head units. Thanks to its hinge it offers either an upwards or downwards adjustability of 20 degrees, as well as two fore or aft positions, 11 millimeters apart. The bolt-on design, which attaches to the faceplate of the stem, ensures that the Stem Computer Mount is securely fastened to the bike, eliminating the risk of losing one’s cycling computer should the asphalt get a little bumpy.
PRO Compact Carbon Clip-On
Designed for ultra-endurance cyclists and short distance triathletes, who are constantly searching for ways to improve their aerodynamic efficiency, PRO’s new Compact Carbon Clip-On extension provides hand positions which facilitate an aerodynamic position on the bike while maintaining a comfortable and controlled use of the bike. It also improves functionality, by incorporating a bike computer mount and a slot for bolting on a PRO Accessory Mount.
Constructed from UD T700 carbon the PRO Compact Carbon Clip-On weighs just 135 grams. Far less of a weight penalty than a traditional triathlon/time trial extension, the PRO Compact Carbon Clip-On still provides similar aerodynamic gains, allowing riders to bring their hands together in a position which reduces their frontal profile.
The solid, bolt-on construction, coupled with the broad hand placement zone, is covered by an anti-slip graphic that will ensure control while in the extension. While not intended for use on technical terrain or on descents, the PRO Compact Carbon Clip-On is secure enough to enhance control and comfort on those gravel or adventure races and rides.
PRO products carry a limited lifetime warranty; based on a 10-year expected lifetime.
PRO Vibe Superlight Handlebar
- Widths: 38, 40, and 42
- Weight: from 154g
- Drop: 130mm
- Reach: 80mm
- Clamping diameter: 31.8mm
- SRP: $449.99 USD, €419.95 EUR, £379.99 GBP
PRO Vibe Superlight Stem
- Lengths: 70mm, 80mm, 90mm, 100mm, 110mm and 120mm
- Weight: from 92g
- Clamping diameter: 31.8mm
- Angle: ±6 degrees
- Steerers: 11/8 and 1¼ inch
- SRP: $174.99 USD, €159.95 EUR, £159.99 GBP
PRO Vibe Computer Mount
- Weight: 37g
- Adjustability: ±20 degrees and 11mm
- Constructed from 6061 Alloy
- Ships with cradles to mount Garmin, Wahoo and Bryton head units
- SRP: $69.99 USD, €54.95 EUR, £59.99 GBP
PRO Compact Carbon Clip-On
- Weight: 135g
- Compatible with all 31.8mm diameter handlebars
- Constructed from UD T700 carbon
- Garmin, Bryton and Wahoo bike computer mounts included
- SRP: $179.99 USD, €159.95 EUR, £149.99 GBP
PRO Gap Cap Expander
- Weight: 24g
- Available for 1 1/8 and 1 ¼ inch steerers
- Alloy construction
- Includes a carbon top cap
- SRP: $34.99 USD, €34.95 EUR, £29.99 GBP
JetBlack: Steering on Zwift just got a whole lot better
JetBlack is excited today to officially release our new JetBlack SMART Turn Block. Designed to provide avatar steering and intersection choice on Zwift and other indoor cycling apps.
The release of the SMART Turn Block coincides with the latest Zwift software update enabling the option to select turn direction at intersections in release 1.29 It was not in Zwift’s release notes but is now live in game.
JetBlack has been the primary driver to have this feature implemented within Zwift.
“JetBlack wanted more value for our users than just moving your avatar in game.” Says Tony Simmonds, JetBlack’s CEO. “As a cyclist you turn your bars to choose your direction. I got frustrated trying to navigate at intersections with my remote control or keyboard, so it made perfect sense for us to work with Zwift to see this functionality implemented. This product is a game changer and will be the primary hardware for users all around the world to use for indoor steering. This is the single best bang for buck upgrade you can do to enhance your indoor experience. It enables you to spend more time on your trainer with greater comfort. Every single person that owns a smart trainer will want one of these”
The SMART Turn Block uses Bluetooth for communication and is also being implemented into other cycling Apps as their steering functionality becomes available.
The SMART Turn Block connects directly with the device running the cycling app so can be used with any trainer brand on the market.
The SMART Turn Block is also designed to pair with the JetBlack Volt through the Bluetooth Bridge, so users using Apple TV can have their JetBlack Volt, heart rate monitor and SMART Turn Block all connected at the same time. (JetBlack invented this Bluetooth Bridge and was 1st company to implement this feature).
The unique design of the SMART Turn Block offers the following features:
- Silky Smooth steering in game
- Navigate at Intersections on Zwift
- Superior and immersive riding experience – Being able to freely move your handlebars dramatically enhances the indoor cycling experience.
- Ride for more comfortably for longer – Unique angles allow for smooth turning without pushing back through bike frame eliminating stress on your body and equipment.
The SMART Turn Block is available immediately in Australia and will be available in the USA (website and Amazon), UK and Europe shortly.
USA Price $99.00
Helmetor – Helmet Holder
Helmetor® is a unique patented helmet holder designed by us (Tim and Jonnie), two brothers and cycling enthusiasts from County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. We wanted to create a secure helmet storage solution as well as an incentive for cycling safety (i.e our kids having an easy to use and – NO Excuse for not finding your helmet – solution.
Designing something that would work with the masses of helmet variations was the first challenge but inspriation came from half a wire coat hanger!
Next was to find a plastic that gave us the following attributes:
- Toughness, high impact strength, high resistance to repeated impact • High mechanical strength and rigidity
- Long-term fatigue endurance
- Good resistance to creep
- Good UV resistance
As well as the usual CAD modelling/ strength analyses etc, we created a few of our own testing methods involving screwdrivers, a jig and TIm (14 stone) hanging off it!
We then had Helmetor!
Attachable to most flat surfaces vertically and horizontally working with vents that are between 30 and 65mm, full face or open, in the garage, the van, under a shelf – you decide!
We care about the environment hence our packaging is 100% recyclable which makes us happy too.
Note: PEZCyclingNews ask that you contact the manufacturers before using any products you see here. Only the manufacturer can provide accurate and complete information on proper / safe use, handling, maintenance and or installation of products as well as any conditional information or product limitations.